Tag Archives: Summer

How Does Sunscreen Work?

Summer camp is underway here at AstroCamp and one of the things campers get told time and time again is to wear sunscreen. We all know that sunscreen helps prevent sunburns and skin cancer, but how?

sunscreen

Well, sunscreen is composed of a mix of organic and inorganic compounds that work together to limit our exposure to the ultraviolet light streaming at us from the sun. The inorganic compounds, including zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, act like a bunch of microscopic mirrors, reflecting or scattering the UV light before it can reach our skin. The organic molecules absorb the UV light instead of letting our skin absorb it. Absorbing this radiation slowly breaks down the organic molecules, which is why you need to reapply sunscreen after a while.

sunscreen 2

To visualize that, we put a piece of black construction paper out in the sun for a few hours. Half of the paper was covered in sunscreen and half was left blank, with the bottle crossing the border between both halves. You can clearly see that the area covered in sunscreen held its dark color much better than the side left unprotected. In fact, the area coated in sunscreen is almost as dark as the section under the bottle, which took no UV damage.

For those of you who remember our piece on bleach, you’ll know that the pigments we see come from chemicals called chromophores. Unlike in that video, however, the source of breaking up the chromophores in the paper is UV radiation. It was absorbed into the paper and broke apart the bonds in the chromophores, causing the paper to fade; this is much like how it damages our cells, causing them to potentially create defective cells which may eventually lead to skin cancer.

So remember, if you’re going into harsh sunlight, make sure you have sunscreen on.

Liquid Nitrogen Pool Exploration

CAUTION: DO NOT DO THIS WITH SOMEONE IN THE POOL! IT IS VERY DANGEROUS AS THE EVAPORATED NITROGEN DISPLACES THE OXYGEN IN THE AIR AND SOMEONE COULD SUFFOCATE AND POSSIBLE DEATH.

At AstroCamp, we love exploring and testing theories. So what do we do when we have excess liquid nitrogen from our summer camp program that will evaporate before we can use it again?  Why we do some experiments of course!  Our favorite recent experiment was dumping the left over liquid nitrogen into the pool.  We thought we were going to get a lot of condensation from the water vapor coming into contact with the cold liquid nitrogen.  What we forgot to take into account was the Leidenfrost Effect.  The Leidenfrost Effect occurs when a liquid comes into contact with a surface much hotter than it.  Because of the drastic change in temperature, the liquid that comes into contact with the surface boils near instantly.  But the boiled gas creates a buffer for the rest of the liquid and keeps it from evaporating for a while longer. In the pool, this allows the liquid nitrogen to spread across the surface of the water, expanding the fog until it nearly covers the pool entirely.  Stay tuned for future fun things to do with liquid nitrogen exploration!

WELCOME TO OUR ASTROCAMP BLOG

We would like to thank you for visiting our blog. AstroCamp is a hands-on physical science program with an emphasis on astronomy and space exploration. Our classes and activities are designed to inspire students toward future success in their academic and personal pursuits. This blog is intended to provide you with up-to-date news and information about our camp programs, as well as current science and astronomical happenings. This blog has been created by our staff who have at least a Bachelors Degree in Physics or Astronomy, however it is not uncommon for them to have a Masters Degree or PhD. We encourage you to also follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, and Vine to see even more of our interesting science, space and astronomy information. Feel free to leave comments, questions, or share our blog with others. Please visit www.astrocampschool.org for additional information. Happy Reading!

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