## Bernoulli’s Principle

Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician and physicist in the mid-1700s. He excelled in the fields of statistics and probability, but also was influential in applying mathematics to physical mechanics. Particularly, he is known for his work in fluid dynamics, now known as Bernoulli’s Principle. Most simply, Bernoulli’s Principle is a derivation of the conservation

## Free Energy or Toy

Electricity is one of the most useful discoveries of our relatively recent history. It lights the rooms we hang out in, give power to some vehicles and allows for communication across vast distances. In 1800, Italian physicist Alessandro Volta discovered that particular chemical reactions could produce electricity so he constructed the voltaic pile (an early

## Electric Motor DIY

An electric motor is a device used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Electric motors are extremely important in modern-day life. They are used in vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, computer printers, machine tools, cars, subway systems, sewage treatment plants, etc, and you can make your own at home! Here’s how: Materials: Copper wire D battery

## How to: Kinetic Sculpture

Kinetic sculptures are moving art pieces, that usually do not have a motor, but alternatively use other forms of energy to propel the movement. Wind, water, or an initial manual push are common types of energy which kinetic sculptures harness. The art piece that we are going to make is going to harness energy given

## Ready, Set, No Flinch Pendulum! Thats Science!

The conservation of energy tells us that a bowling ball won’t swing higher than the initial height if there is no force added. But should we still believe that in a high risk situation? We are putting the laws of physics up to the test. Caution: Do not try this at home without parental supervision.

## Watch what happens: LED in Liquid Nitrogen

It wouldn’t be surprising if nitrogen was your favorite elements. N2 is the most common molecule found in our atmosphere, making up roughly 78% of it. But here at camp, we have a different reason for why it is one of our favorite things to have around. We have a ton of liquid Nitrogen on

## Electric Lighter vs Mints: Crystalline Energy

Have you ever wondered what electric lighters and Wint-o-green Lifesavers have in common? No? Well we here at AstroCamp wondered exactly that and the answer is a surprising one: they both involve energy released from crystals! Electric lighters like this piezo ignitor don’t use the normal flint and steel ignition method of a normal lighter,

## Bang, Pow! Collision Science

When cars, billiard balls, or football players collide, their momentum doesn’t just disappear. It has to go somewhere. Some collisional energy dissipates as heat, and some causes the incoming objects to recoil. Take a basketball hitting the ground. Both the ball and the ground become a little warmer than they were before. The basketball also

## The Pendulum Challenge

Think you could stand still with a bowling ball swinging towards your nose? It’s tough! This scary experiment is governed by the same principle that decides the dynamics of a car crash and guides trick shots on a pool table: a gigantically important physical law called conservation of energy. This law states that if a

## Experimenting with Hand Warmers: Its Hot

﻿﻿ Your body knows that internal organs are more vital than, say, fingers and toes. In cold weather, it wouldn’t be very efficient to pump warm blood to the outside of your body, because then the heat could easily radiate away! Conserving warmth in your core is a great survival tactic, but it’s uncomfortable for

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