Why Is The Sky Blue?

Ever heard that the sky is blue because it’s reflecting Earth’s water? It’s a myth! If the sky was just mirroring the planet below, it would be brown in Utah. The real reason for our atmosphere’s hue has its roots in a more fundamental question: how do we see the world around us?

Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Florida Atlantic University

Human eyes are living light detectors. Color is just our brain’s code for incoming energy level. We call the most energetic light we can see “purple” and the least energetic “red”.

Our built-in biological cameras have a quirk: when confronted with a mixture of colors all at once, they’re overstimulated. Our eyes can’t resolve a blend of energy levels into individual signals, so our visual processing system defines a new category, which we call “white”. The sun’s radiation appears white before it reaches Earth, but it’s really a combination of many colors.

SunFromISS

The sun & Earth as seen from the ISS. Since sunlight hasn’t been scattered by the atmosphere on its way to the camera, it appears white. Credit: NASA

As white sunlight enters the atmosphere, the transition from empty space to air affects each of its components differently. Blue-violet light is bounced around the most drastically by air molecules in its path. From our perspective on Earth’s surface, scattered blue radiation fills the sky. Lower-energy light, which we interpret as the colors red through green, travels more directly downward to our eyes. We interpret this smaller combination — white minus blue-violet — as pale yellow.

Rayleigh-Scattering

Image courtesy of the City University of New York

As sunlight travels farther through the atmosphere, it’s more thoroughly scattered. At sunset, when rays travel sideways through a thick slice of air instead of straight down, we see more of the spectrum spread out across the sky. The leftover light traveling directly to us is mostly red and orange, which explains the sun’s ruddy appearance as it sets.

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.00.14 AM

Sunset from AstroCamp

Written By: Caela Barry

WELCOME TO OUR ASTROCAMP BLOG

We would like to thank you for visiting our blog. AstroCamp is a hands-on physical science program with an emphasis on astronomy and space exploration. Our classes and activities are designed to inspire students toward future success in their academic and personal pursuits. This blog is intended to provide you with up-to-date news and information about our camp programs, as well as current science and astronomical happenings. This blog has been created by our staff who have at least a Bachelors Degree in Physics or Astronomy, however it is not uncommon for them to have a Masters Degree or PhD. We encourage you to also follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, and Vine to see even more of our interesting science, space and astronomy information. Feel free to leave comments, questions, or share our blog with others. Please visit www.astrocampschool.org for additional information. Happy Reading!

Categories

Archives

Tags